Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Passage from Tradition into Modernity essays

The Passage from Tradition into Modernity essays The films Daughters of the Dust and Fire each address the cultural passage from tradition to modernity. On one hand are duties, obligations, and traditions. On the other are needs, desires, and freedom. Wars between these two antagonistic camps have been fought through the ages across many societies around the world. While the progression in each film is demonstrated to be anything but smooth, as it is shown that it is nearly impossible to extricate modernity completely from tradition, it is a transition that is also looked upon as inevitable. The battleground in Deepa Mehta's Fire is the tradition-bound society of modern-day India, where it depicts two women's discovery of lesbian desire and self-expression, freedoms that directly challenge the social order and the conventional family unit. The role of the Indian woman is re-defined; no longer do wives submit without question to the whims of their husbands, and this shift is causing tremors throughout the entire Indian culture. Fire shows the causes and effects of one such tiny reverberation. Duty, not love, is what tradition demands from a wife to her husband and in this environment, it is only natural that Sita and Radha become fast friends, and, in time, much more than that. These womens relationship is forbidden, but by giving into their feelings for each other they discover the strength to defy their husbands and turn their backs on tradition. This is the tale of two vital, beautiful women breaking the cultural obstacles of tradition and being reborn through the passion they express for each other in the modernity of the emancipated individual-focused world. The film is reality based yet it glides into a surreal flashback and more specifically there is another humorous dream scene that shows the mythological roots for the story the title itself refers to the scene, in which the God Rama makes his wife also named Sita dance through fire in order to prove he...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Describe the causes, events, and consequences of the Salem Witch Essay

Describe the causes, events, and consequences of the Salem Witch Trials - Essay Example In truth the Salem witch trials involved accusations of witchcraft, which is essentially perceived as devil worship, by people against their neighbors, family members, and friends. There were no witches in Salem Massachusetts casting spells or harming people. In fact, in took very little to earn an accusation as a witch, but surviving such an accusation is a whole other story. The Salem Witch Trials represent the power of fear and false accusations that can consume an entire community until it turned itself inside out. The era of the Salem Witch Trials is a time period that would have been rather frightening to be living in. Salem Massachusetts in the late 1600s had been through a great deal of hardship. There was rampant disease, poor harvests, and a number of Indian attacks that was making people fearful and on edge all of the time. With all of this unpleasantness the atmosphere was ripe for some kind of violent outburst in response. It all began in 1692 in the home of Reverend Sam uel Parris. Whose daughter had begun having seizures or spasms, suffering delusions, and had fallen in to a strange trance-like state. It was the doctor that examined her that brought him the side effects of witchcraft as a cause. He suggested that Betty Parris was either a practitioner of the dark craft or a victim of it.1 All of the girls who were companions of Betty, Mary Warren and Abigail Williams, admitted that they had danced and carried on in the woods under the encouragement of Tituba, the Parris’s foreign servant. Soon enough all of the girls, including Tituba are accused of witchcraft; but to save themselves they confess and ask forgiveness. They begin behaving as if other witches and the devil, himself, were attempting to punish them and torment them because they no longer wished to serve the devil. Soon enough this group of girls began naming names of, mostly woman in the community who may be witches. The Courts were established to try those accused. From here it is important to mention that most people associate the events in the story of the Salem Witch Trials through the play the â€Å"The Crucible, â€Å"by Arthur Miller. However, his work changed certain elements for dramatic effect that strayed from the true history a bit. For example, Miller portrays Tituba as more of a slave of African descent. In truth, Tituba was an Indian from the island of Barbados. Another major plot in the â€Å"The Crucible† is the love affair between Abigail Williams and John Proctor, a respected citizen of Salem. It is Proctor’s spurning of Abigail’s attention that caused her to turn on him and accuse his wife of witchcraft. However, in reality, Abigail Williams was only 12 years old; there is no verifiable historical proof that there was any relationship at all between Abigail and John Proctor. This as part of the cause of the trials is only an invention of the theatre.2 However, there are 4 specific reasons that can be attributed to the cause of the Salem Witch Trials. â€Å"Religious hysteria† is one of these theories. The Puritans were a very devout sect, who believed fully that both God and the Devil can play interactive roles in the lives of mortal men. The idea that witchcraft and devil worship was rampant in their town would have been terrifying for many of the residents. Another theory suggests that it may have begun with a legitimate illness, but not one caused by the Devil. Rye poisoning was a possible culprit. The consumption of it acts like LSD on the system and could produce

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Mendel Genetics Using Brassica Rapa Research Paper

Mendel Genetics Using Brassica Rapa - Research Paper Example Through the experiment, the hypothesis that the presence of purple pigment is dominant and the trait follows Mendelian laws will be tested. Through analysis of the experimental data collected revealing the dominance of the purple stem trait and a literature review of qualitative and quantitative data, the result will be analyzed to determine if the hypothesized prediction that the phenotypical ratio of 3:1 is established, in accordance with the Mendelian laws. ... Materials and Method To conduct this experiment, heterozygous P Brassica rapa seeds were planted on day one and cultivated in 28 by 55 centimeter plastic pots in an artificial soil compound of an equal mixture of peat moss and vermiculite and watered with distilled water on regular intervals (6). The plants were grown at a controlled temperature of 32?C under regular illumination from fluorescent lamps (7). The seeds, potting soil, and planters were the materials used for this portion of the experiment. The genotype of the parent plants used was F1, Non-Purple Stem, and Hairless. One parental plant was true breeding and green and the other parental plant was true breeding and purple. Once the seedlings began to sprout on the fourth or fifth day, the numbers of purple and green stem phenotype was recorded. The plants began to flower between days nine and eleven and were cross pollinated on day fourteen. Seed pods began to appear on day twenty-one, at which point they will be collected and germinated in the same manner as the parent plants. The number of purple and green stem phenotypes will be counted among the F1 generation to ascertain whether they follow the Mandelian principles. The seeds will appear above ground and will be collected, allocated, and counted according to the number of total seeds that germinate and the stem color of the seeds that germinate. Results Figure 1 Section 001 Table # 1 # Germinated Seeds Purple Phenotypes Green Phenotypes 1 63 51 10 2 99 78 5 3 90 74 5 4 80 56 16 5 74 58 3 6 39 25 10 Total 445 342 49 Figure 2 Section 002 Table # 2 # Germinated Seeds Purple Phenotypes Green Phenotypes 1 172 140 28 2

Friday, January 31, 2020

Hats & ornament Essay Example for Free

Hats ornament Essay Hats have been the ornament for the head for a long time. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when the first animal skin was placed over a head as a protection against the elements. (Hatsuk. com). In 1529, the word â€Å"milliner† came out as the terms used to point to the maker of women’s hats. The bonnet also dominated as the most popular of women’s headgear (Hatsuk. com). Early in the 1900s most of the hats that were getting to be popular were huge and adorned with flowers, feathers and tulle. Meanwhile, by the mid 1920’s the hair of women became shorter hugging the head like helmet (Hats. Hatsuk. com). During the 1960s, the hat now was overtaken by wigs and hairdressers and both men and women knew that they could achieve a less formal look so that the hat was a temporary casualty (Hats. Hatsuk. com). These old hats can be really valuable as they are considered antique pieces. Yet if anyone would like to wear a hat, then that could also be used today during parties and shows. Audrey Hepburn’s hat can be adapted in several ways today that will still appear to be fashionable. Hepburn was a good model of different kinds of hats then as she was a fashion icon during her time because she had a very simple nature which until now influences one’s fashion choices. Hepburn’s most popular hat pulled to tilt to one side can still be used today as asymmetrical lines are now the â€Å"in† thing. (Audrey Hepburn’s Hat Collection). Charlie Chaplin’s hat is by far the one most popular then but can be used in the more informal gatherings of businessmen. It is most recognizable when it is worn right putting some dignified look to the wearer. The hat must be worn by tall men so that they will not be gleaned as too tall to wear it. Indeed, in wearing hats, one must decide what kind of look is most appropriate. Once the look has been decided on, there is a need to see what kind of hat would actually match that. Wearing hats would also depend on what kind of hat would match a person’s character. The hat can be replaced with an improvised hat that achieves most changes and which is minimal of the classic look. That is right if one wants an alternative look. Meanwhile, a ball cap is way too rugged for a hat for work that would be welcome for a person (How to Pick a Hat that Matches your Personality). Another way of wearing these hats that one would look into is the color. Since each color evokes different moods that the hat conveys. Meanwhile, Audrey Hepburn was a good model of different kinds of hats then as she was a fashion icon during her time because she had a very simple nature which until now influences one’s fashion choices (Audrey Hepburn’s Hat Collection). These hats have been modified in different ways yet can still be used as it appears to be most fashionable. REFERENCES Audrey Hepburn’s Hat Collection. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at: http://www. chinadaily. com. cn/life/2009-02/20/content_7496617. htm Old Hat still in vogue. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at: http://www. brisbanetimes. com. au/news/fashion/old-hat-still-in-vogue/2007/05/30/1180205302606. html Old Hat still in vogue. http://www. brisbanetimes. com. au/news/fashion/old-hat-still-in-vogue/2007/05/30/1180205302606. html Old School Hat Still in Vogue. http://www. talkncafe. com/Lifestyle-Classroom/Old-school-hat-still-in-vogue. html Hats. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at: http://www. answers. com/topic/hat Hats. Hatsuk. com Retrieved March 16, 2009 at: http://www. hatsuk. com/hatsuk/hatsukhtml/bible/history. htm How to Pick a Hat that Matches your Personality. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at: http://www. wikihow. com/Pick-a-Hat-that-Matches-Your-Personality

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Role of Women in Jane Eyre Essay -- Charlotte Bronte Woman Female Jane

Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre represents the role of women in the Victorian era by giving the reader an insight into the lives of women from all social classes. Jane Eyre therefore represents figures of the Victorian time yet the character of Jane Eyre, herself, can be seen as very unconventional for the Victorian society. England, in the eighteenth century, was driven by class distinction and wealth. In the lower class there was always a desperate struggle to survive which contrasted to the life led by the upper class, socializing with people like themselves. The servant trade, made up by the lower class, allowed the upper class to live their desired life whilst constantly maintaining superiority based on their position in society. Women, in all classes, were still living in a world which was misogynistic and male-dominated. Their purpose in life was to produce male heirs and maintain the home by hiring and overseeing servants. It was also taboo for one to marry significantly below one’s social class. This is one reason that Jane is not a conventional heroine for the society of her time. Although, as a governess, she is not considered to be as low as a housemaid, she is still part of the hired help in the house. This is why it is unconventional for her and Mr Rochester to be in a relationship. Yet this is not as peculiar as how Jane Eyre ends their relationship due to her sense of betrayal. It would have been considered extremely foolish for a working-woman’s sense of betrayal to end and turn down a man of great wealth. Many women in this period would engage in â€Å"arranged† marriages which were widely accepted and indeed, one of the most practiced forms of marrying at this time. Usually a marriage of convenience rather... ...rotagonist, Jane is presented in the role of a lower class woman. This is evident in the way that she must work to support herself. Mrs. Fairfax, the tenant at Thornfield Hall is presented in the role of a middle to upper class woman. Although she does not have a family of her own, which is uncharacteristic of middle class women in Victorian times, she has a well paid job and a wonderful house to live in. Charlotte Bronte has given the reader an insight into the role of upper class women through the character of Miss Ingram. She has no job, as her principle in life is to bear a child. Her days consist of social outings and reading or playing the piano. It is therefore evident that there was a great division between the social classes with women. The roles of women altered largely between classes, and Charlotte Bronte has focused on this significantly in her novel. Role of Women in Jane Eyre Essay -- Charlotte Bronte Woman Female Jane Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre represents the role of women in the Victorian era by giving the reader an insight into the lives of women from all social classes. Jane Eyre therefore represents figures of the Victorian time yet the character of Jane Eyre, herself, can be seen as very unconventional for the Victorian society. England, in the eighteenth century, was driven by class distinction and wealth. In the lower class there was always a desperate struggle to survive which contrasted to the life led by the upper class, socializing with people like themselves. The servant trade, made up by the lower class, allowed the upper class to live their desired life whilst constantly maintaining superiority based on their position in society. Women, in all classes, were still living in a world which was misogynistic and male-dominated. Their purpose in life was to produce male heirs and maintain the home by hiring and overseeing servants. It was also taboo for one to marry significantly below one’s social class. This is one reason that Jane is not a conventional heroine for the society of her time. Although, as a governess, she is not considered to be as low as a housemaid, she is still part of the hired help in the house. This is why it is unconventional for her and Mr Rochester to be in a relationship. Yet this is not as peculiar as how Jane Eyre ends their relationship due to her sense of betrayal. It would have been considered extremely foolish for a working-woman’s sense of betrayal to end and turn down a man of great wealth. Many women in this period would engage in â€Å"arranged† marriages which were widely accepted and indeed, one of the most practiced forms of marrying at this time. Usually a marriage of convenience rather... ...rotagonist, Jane is presented in the role of a lower class woman. This is evident in the way that she must work to support herself. Mrs. Fairfax, the tenant at Thornfield Hall is presented in the role of a middle to upper class woman. Although she does not have a family of her own, which is uncharacteristic of middle class women in Victorian times, she has a well paid job and a wonderful house to live in. Charlotte Bronte has given the reader an insight into the role of upper class women through the character of Miss Ingram. She has no job, as her principle in life is to bear a child. Her days consist of social outings and reading or playing the piano. It is therefore evident that there was a great division between the social classes with women. The roles of women altered largely between classes, and Charlotte Bronte has focused on this significantly in her novel.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Inclusion of Students with Disabilities into Regular Education Classrooms

The American Community Survey (ACS), which is conducted by the Census Bureau, estimated that about 6. 3% of the children between the age of 5 and 15 years had some form of disability in 2007. 1 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), which was legislated in 1975, requires all public schools in the U. S. to provide ‘all eligible children with disabilities a free public education in the least restrictive environment appropriate for their needs. ‘According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, about 6. 7 million children  and youth, between the ages of 3 and 21, received services under IDEA in 2006 – 2007. 2 The issue of inclusion and mainstreaming of children with disabilities has always been controversial. While it is wrong to differentiate and isolate children based on their abilities, most regular schools are ill equipped to take care of children with certain disabilities and that can be disadvantageous to the disabled child as well as the regular children in the class. So, although every eligible child should have a right to go to any educational institution that he  or she wants to, it is important to make individualized decisions about inclusion.Teachers, doctors, therapists, parents and students should work together and decide what is best for all the children in the classroom. The National Dissemination Center for children with disabilities has defined inclusion as the philosophy, process, and practice of educating students with disabilities in general education classrooms in neighborhood schools with the supports and accommodations needed by those students.However, different researchers and educators have different opinions about what ‘inclusion' can actually mean. Some researchers like Lewis and Doorlang consider a child with disabilities ‘included' if he spends any part of the school day with general class peers in â€Å"common instructional or social activities with additional instructio n and support from a special educator† while Friend & Bursuck believed that inclusion generally occurs when a student with disabilities can meet â€Å"traditional academic expectations with minimal assistance.†Until the late 1960s, there was no help for children with disabilities at public schools. In fact, most schools had the right to refuse admission if the child was severely disabled while children with mild problems had struggle by themselves to cope with the school curriculum. All of that changed in 1969, with the passage of the Children with Specific Learning Disabilities Act, when it became mandatory for public schools to provide support services for students with learning disabilities.The Congress enacted the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975 which intended to support states and localities in meeting the individual needs of children and youths with disabilities. This law was later renamed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act or ID EA. 2 As more and more kids started receiving special education, it was observed that such children were not taught the general curriculum at the schools. This led to the reauthorization of IDEA in 1997 and access to the general curriculum  was added to the statute.Ever since its formation, IDEA and the concept of inclusion were contentious. The supporters of the act believed that since disabled children have to live in the same society as the general population when they grow up, it is better to start early. This will help the general children also to develop into more understanding and compassionate individuals. The opponents of inclusion, on the other hand, believe that if the handicapped children are sent to  regular classrooms, they would be denied the ‘small-group, multi-sensory, carefully sequenced instruction, integrated with their various physical therapies, now provided by skilled certified teachers' while the non-handicapped children may miss their regular lesso ns.Some critics of inclusion believe that mainstreaming is a better option. Mainstreaming refers to selective placement of special education students in one or more â€Å"regular† education classes. The students are introduced to few regular classes based on each student's individual potential  and they follow a Individualized Education Plan (IEP) under the guidance of a specialist. The students are thus, exposed to the outside world but at a slower pace. The purpose of mainstreaming is specialized academic learning while the purpose of inclusion is to prepare for an independent life as an adult. Inclusion is less restrictive and allows a child with disabilities to be a part of a regular classroom and follow the regular curriculum with assistance of a specialist.Full inclusion, on the other hand, refers to elimination of special education  altogether and instructing all students in the same classroom with same curriculum. The proponents of full inclusion believe that all children are equally worth and hence, should be treated equally. Several models have been proposed to implement inclusion in classrooms across the United States. Some of these models include the Consultant model, the Teaming model and the Collaborative or Co-teaching model. In the Consultant model a special education teacher is made available to the students and will help to reteach a difficult concept or skillThis non- intrusive approach is effective in case of low incidence of special needs students and overall low student population. In the Teaming model special education teacher is assigned to a team and the teacher provides student several strategies to deal with assignments and tests. The team meets on a regular basis, establishing consistent communication among the team members. All team members work together and broaden their knowledge in various areas, whether they are from general education or special education.On the other hand, the Collaborative model involves general ed ucation and special education teachers working together to teach students with or without disabilities in a shared classroom. Students receive age-appropriate academics, support services, and possible modified instruction. Collaborative teaching can be organized in a number of ways like one teacher and one support, parallel teaching design, team teaching, alternative teaching design etc.The kind of model that a classroom might adopt depends on a variety of factors like the  requirements of the students and the number of resources that the teachers have at their disposal. Whichever model it adopts, an inclusive classroom is student-centered and students have a major role to play in deciding the academic and social activities of the day. There is a lot of social interaction with each student doing their own individualized curriculum under the guidance of a special education teacher. The classroom may have different centers that focus on different skills like language, math etc.Child ren are allowed to use many different kind of learning tools like books, computers, taped stories and music. One of the major advantages of a inclusion classroom for regular students is that it helps them develop compassion and sensitivity at a young age. Children get an opportunity to experience diversity in a small classroom setting and it also boosts their self-confidence as they develop an ability to make a difference and to help others. All students have the benefit of having two teachers in the class.Also, inclusion classrooms focus on peer learning and that can have immense impact on most children. Inclusion classrooms can also be beneficial to the teachers as it gives them an opportunity to be a part of a multi-disciplinary team that faces new challenges everyday. The teachers also learn to appreciate the fact that each child has his own strengths and weaknesses and get an opportunity to understand the benefits of direct individualized instruction. Children with special need s can benefit immensely by going to regular schools.It gives them a sense of belongingness in the community. It enhances their self-respect and enables them to develop friendships with same-age peers. A regular school exposes the child to a more stimulating environment and may make it easier for them adjust to the outside world. Thus, the supporters of inclusion believe that all students will benefit from being in an inclusion classrooms in the long run. In spite of all these advantages, inclusion classrooms are controversial and that is because  these classrooms can often be disruptive and under productive. In practice, children pursuing individualized curricula with aides, under the supervision of the teacher who is attempting to teach the whole class may lead to commotion and confusion.The critics also believe that there is no scientific basis for the belief that handicapped children benefit by being placed with non-handicapped children. In fact, some research shows that handic apped children feel more isolated in the regular class, as it imposes greater psychological pressure on them and  they become more aware of what their peers can do and what they cannot. Some research has shown that in Texas, Missouri and Minnesota, special-education students are suspended at roughly twice the rate of regular students, state reports indicate.Also, for children with disabilities in a regular environment, socialization becomes more important than academics and hence, can be detrimental to student's education. Some school districts have reported higher teacher turnover and classroom commotion due to mainstreaming.Many teachers are often uncomfortable with an unorganized classroom. Most teachers lack special training and support to deal with inclusion and can lead to frustration. Inclusion can also be viewed unfavorably by regular students. They may find it disruptive to their own education. Also, if not implemented properly, it can lead to resentment among regular stu dents towards their disabled peers and can lead to unpleasant atmosphere in the classrooms. Even the proponents of inclusion have to agree that it is not for everyone.â€Å"Inclusion without resources, without support, without teacher preparation time, without commitment, without a vision statement, without restructuring, without staff development, won't work. † says Mara Sapon-Shevin, professor of inclusive education at Syracuse University. So, before starting any new inclusion program, it is important to analyze the situation and check for all the available resources. Every body involved in the education system including students, teachers, special  education teachers and parents should be involved in the decision.It is also important to make a smooth transition in a gradual step by step manner that is not overwhelming to the handicapped children as well as their non-handicapped peers. Also, good communication between the teachers, students and the parents is key to the s uccess of inclusion education and thus, schools should have clear strategies and plans before introducing inclusive classrooms to their system.Inclusion is a disputable issue and proponents on both sides of the theory are equally passionate about their cause. It a great concept of education that is based upon the principle of compassion and equality for all. If implemented properly, the inclusion classrooms can be great models for an ideal society. However, it is a difficult concept to implement. Most teachers lack the appropriate training and resources to manage an inclusion classroom and that can be overwhelming to all the individuals involved.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The Effectiveness of U.S. and Scandinavian Penal and...

Joe is a prisoner in a United States penitentiary convicted of assault with a deadly weapon and attempted robbery. Johan is a prisoner in a Norwegian Correctional Facility also convicted of assault with a deadly weapon and attempted robbery. After eight years of serving their time in custody, they are released back out into society, the world beyond their prison walls. During the following month after their release, Joe has once again been arrested for assault and attempted robbery while Johan has started making a quiet living as a deckhand on the coast for a small fishing company in Kopervik. Now both men have the same background and have come out of the same circumstances but yet only one reverts back to a life a crime, why? The United†¦show more content†¦Or in the words of the Prison and Probation Service itself: â€Å"The Prison and Probation Service has two main goals: To contribute to the reduction of criminality, and to work to increase safety in society. To achieve these goals we work with sentenced persons in order to improve their possibilities of living a life without committing new crimes.† (Linstrom and Leijonram) The PTA of 1974 is based on four key principles that continues to shape the modern prison system and inspire the ones of the future. These four points are: i) Imprisonment as a last resort; that is the usual punishment should be a fine or community service, since imprisonment normally has detrimental effects; ii) Normalization; that is, the same rules concerning social and medical care and other forms of public service should apply to prisoners just as they apply to ordinary citizens; iii) Vicinity; that is, the prisoner should be placed in prison as close as possible to his or her hometown (which now is considered more or less obsolete with the advent of high-speed transit and long-distance communication via telephones and the internet); iv) Co-operation; meaning that all parts of the correctional systems (probation service, remand prisons, and prisons) should work closely together in individual cases as well as in general. (Linstrom and Leijonram) These principles are points that the US prison and penal system needs to adapt and incorporate into the US penal